Q. Summarize Edward Said’s Orientalism.
Orientalism is an influential book by Edward Said, first published in 1978. In this book, Said discusses how the West often wrongly represents the East—Asia, North Africa, and the Middle East.
It is structured into three main chapters, each corresponding to different parts. Here is a brief overview of each:
1: The Scope of Orientalism
- Part I: Knowing the Oriental
- Part II: Imaginative Geography and Its Representations: Orientalizing the Oriental
- Part III: Projects
- Part IV: Crisis
2: Orientalist Structures and Restructures
- Part I: Redrawn Frontiers, Redefined Issues, Secularized Religion
- Part II: Silvestre de Sacy and Ernest Renan: Rational Anthropology and Philological Laboratory
- Part III: Oriental Residence and Scholarship: The Requirements of Lexicography and Imagination
- Part IV: Pilgrims and Pilgrimages, British and French
3: Orientalism Now
- Part I: Latent and Manifest Orientalism
- Part II: Style, Expertise, Vision: Orientalism’s Worldliness
- Part III: Modern Anglo-French Orientalism in Fullest Flower
- Part IV: The Latest Phase
Edward Said’s Orientalism Summary
The Scope of Orientalism
Knowing the Oriental
This part of the book examines how the West perceives and represents the East, known as the Orient. It discusses the Western viewpoint that often paints the Orient as unfamiliar, backward, and different. This perspective has shaped Western studies and cultural understanding of Eastern societies.
Balfour’s Perspective on Egypt and the Orient
In this chapter, Edward Said discusses a 1910 speech about Egypt by a prominent British politician, Arthur James Balfour. With his extensive political experience, Balfour talks about the unique challenges in governing Egypt compared to British regions.
He views Egypt and other Eastern countries through the lens of Orientalism, seeing them as fundamentally different from the West.
Knowledge and Power
Edward Said highlights that Balfour’s speech revolves around knowledge and power. Balfour believes British rule in Egypt is justified because of the British understanding of Egyptian civilization.
He implies that the British knowledge of Egypt gives them the right to govern it, suggesting that knowing a country equates to having authority over it.
Balfour’s Views on Eastern Societies
Balfour does not view Eastern societies, including Egypt, as capable of self-government. He asserts that their history, filled with despotism and a lack of self-rule, justifies British governance.
He believes that British rule brings better governance to these regions, which is beneficial not only to the locals but also to the Western world.
The West and the East
Said examines how Balfour’s speech reflects the broader Western perspective on the East. The speech assumes a natural superiority of the West over the East.
Balfour’s views exemplify how Orientalism forms a divide between ‘us’ (the West) and ‘them’ (the East), reinforcing stereotypes and justifying Western dominance.
Orientalism in Practice
The chapter also discusses how Orientalism is practiced and institutionalized in the West. Said explains that Orientalism shapes Western policies and attitudes towards Eastern countries. It creates a framework where the West sees the East as a subject for study and control.
The Impact of Orientalism
In conclusion, Said’s analysis of Balfour’s speech in “Knowing the Oriental” reveals the deep-rooted Orientalist attitudes in Western thought.
These attitudes not only misrepresent Eastern societies but also serve to justify and maintain Western dominance over them. Said critiques this worldview for its simplification and its role in perpetuating cultural misunderstandings and power imbalances.
Imaginative Geography and Its Representations: Orientalizing the Oriental
It is about how the West creates a fictional version of the East (Orient). This process involves imagining and defining the Orient in ways that reflect Western ideas and stereotypes rather than the East’s true nature and diversity.
Orientalism as a Field of Study
Said explains that Orientalism began as a formal academic discipline in the West, focusing on studying Eastern cultures and languages.
Over time, the study of Asian and Middle Eastern societies has evolved into a vast field influenced by various historical events and figures.
Europe’s Perspective of the Orient
The chapter discusses how Europe historically viewed the Orient as a place of exoticism and mystery, a perspective shaped by cultural and religious differences.
This view led to a sense of superiority in the West and a tendency to misinterpret or oversimplify Eastern societies.
Schematizing the Orient
As described by Said, Orientalism involves categorizing and defining the Orient in ways that align with Western expectations and stereotypes.
This process simplifies the complex realities of Eastern societies, fitting them into preconceived Western notions.
Representation of Islam
Said highlights the Western portrayal of Islam, often characterized by misunderstanding and prejudice. This representation frequently depicts Islam and its figures, like Mohammed, in a negative light based on Western religious and cultural biases.
Impact on Western Thought
The influence of Orientalism on Western thought is significant, according to Said. It shapes Western perceptions of the East and reinforces cultural and ideological differences. Orientalism is a lens through which the West views and understands Eastern societies.
Said concludes that Orientalism is limited by its own biases and preconceptions. It fails to capture the true diversity and complexity of the Orient, often presenting a distorted and one-sided view that serves Western interests and narratives.
This part explores how Western powers actively shaped and influenced the East (Orient) to suit their interests and goals. It examines how the West implemented its plans and ideas in the Orient, often for political, economic, or cultural dominance.
Orientalism is the Western study of Eastern cultures. It is how Europe approaches the Orient – a mix of academic study and a collection of ideas, images, and vocabulary. The focus is on the systematic and consistent way Europe has interacted with the East.
Europe’s Dominance over the Orient
Historically, the West has dominated the Orient, especially in India, China, and Japan. The only significant challenge to this dominance came from the Arab and Islamic worlds, which presented political and intellectual challenges to Europe.
Islam’s Unique Position
Islam, geographically and culturally close to Christianity, borrowed from Jewish and Christian traditions and achieved military and political successes. This proximity and success posed a unique challenge to Europe.
Early Orientalist Scholarship
Initial Orientalist works, like Simon Ockley’s “History of the Saracens,” influenced European views of the Orient. These works often portrayed Islam as a significant heresy.
India and European Dominance
Unlike the Islamic world, India did not present a direct threat to Europe. It was more a land of opportunity for European powers, leading to a sense of entitlement over the region.
Napoleon’s Egyptian Expedition
Napoleon’s invasion of Egypt in 1798 was a turning point in Orientalism. He brought scholars (savants) to study Egypt, aiming to dominate and understand the Orient through European methods.
Impact of the Description de l’Égypte
Napoleon’s scholars produced the “Description de l’Égypte,” a comprehensive record of Egypt. This work set a precedent for future European projects in the Orient, combining military conquest with scholarly study.
Suez Canal: A Symbol of Orientalism
The Suez Canal, completed in 1869, epitomized the culmination of Orientalist thought and effort. It physically connected Europe to the East, symbolizing the end of the Orient’s isolation and its incorporation into the European world.
Post-Suez, Orientalism evolved. Once seen as a separate entity, the Orient was now an administrative category within a singular, interconnected world.
The geographical identity of the Orient was effectively dissolved, making way for new imperialist categories and experiences.
This part, titled “Crisis,” of the book Orientalism, discusses the challenges and changes in Western views of the Orient. It highlights how historical events, political shifts, and cultural changes led to reevaluating Orientalism, questioning its biases and impact on the West and the East.
Textual Attitude and Reality
The concept of a ‘textual attitude’ is the idea of understanding life based on texts or books. This approach can create problems when applied to real-world situations, as it can lead to misunderstandings and stereotypes, especially in the context of Orientalism.
Favoring Text Over Reality
Two situations often lead to a textual attitude. First, people rely on texts for understanding when encountering something unknown and threatening.
Second, when texts successfully predict real-world encounters, people tend to trust and rely more on those texts.
It can lead to overemphasizing textual knowledge at the expense of real-world understanding, particularly in studying the Orient.
Power of Textual Knowledge
Texts can create a version of reality that gains acceptance and authority, mainly when supported by academics and institutions. It can lead to a tradition or discourse that shapes how we see certain subjects, like the Orient.
Napoleon, de Lesseps, and the Orient
Figures like Napoleon and de Lesseps based their understanding of the Orient on Orientalist texts. Instead of approaching the Orient as a passive entity to be controlled or manipulated, they should acknowledge its active history and culture.
Modern Orientalism’s Dilemma
In the modern era, as former colonies gained independence, Orientalism faced a crisis. It struggled to adapt to a changing world where the Orient was no longer passive but politically active.
Orientalism had to choose between continuing its old ways or adapting to new realities, but it often failed to recognize the evolving nature of the Orient.
Orientalism’s Impact on Contemporary Thought
Orientalism has influenced modern thinking, leading to stereotypes and generalized views of the Orient.
It has had profound effects on how the West interacts with and understands the Orient, often leading to oversimplified and dehumanized perceptions.
The Gap between Texts and Reality
There is a growing rift between Orientalist texts and the reality of the Orient. Despite the academic rigor of Orientalist studies, they often need to represent the dynamic and evolving nature of the Orient accurately.
Learning from Orientalism
For contemporary intellectuals, understanding Orientalism is crucial for dealing with an increasingly interconnected world.
It highlights the need to balance academic knowledge with understanding real-world contexts and human experiences that shape disciplines like Orientalism.
Orientalist Structures and Restructures
Redrawn Frontiers, Redefined Issues, Secularized Religion
This part examines how Orientalism reshaped the borders and issues related to the East. It focuses on how Westerners altered perceptions of Eastern religion, turning it into a secular topic, and redefined cultural and political boundaries in their study of the Orient.
Flaubert’s Vision of Disillusionment
In his unfinished novel “Bouvard et Pecuchet,” Gustave Flaubert captures the 19th century’s disillusionment with knowledge and human effort.
The protagonists, Bouvard and Pecuchet, delve into various disciplines, encountering consistent disappointment, symbolizing the era’s disillusionment with overzealous scientific and philosophical endeavors.
Europe and Asia: Romantic Ideals
Bouvard dreams of Asia regenerating Europe, reflecting Edgar Quinet’s ideas. This concept represents the 19th-century tendency to rebuild the world based on imaginative visions influenced by figures like Saint-Simon and Comte.
Romanticism and Its Influence
Romantic figures like Friedrich Schlegel advocated studying India and the Orient to rejuvenate European culture. This idea was part of a broader Romantic movement to reconstitute religious elements in secular forms.
Flaubert’s Critique of Knowledge
Flaubert criticizes the naive faith in science and the Orientalists’ misunderstanding of the complexities of the Orient. Bouvard and Pecuchet eventually turn to merely copying texts, representing the uncreative and repetitive nature of knowledge during that era.
Secularizing Trends of the 18th Century
The 18th century marked a shift toward secularizing the study of the Orient, moving beyond a strictly religious scope. Exploration, historical confrontation, sympathetic identification, and classification of types were key elements in this transition.
The Roots of Modern Orientalism
These elements laid the groundwork for modern Orientalism. Key figures like Silvestre de Sacy, Ernest Renan, and Edward Lane played pivotal roles in establishing Orientalism as a scientific and rational field, legitimizing a specific approach to studying the Orient.
Imperialism and Orientalism
Modern Orientalism was closely intertwined with European imperialism and colonialism, contributing to the systematic accumulation of knowledge for territorial acquisition. During this time, Europe took control of 85% of the world. Orientalism, a way of seeing and understanding Eastern cultures from a Western perspective, helped make this happen.
Analyzing Orientalism’s Influence
The chapter aims to dissect Orientalism not just as an intellectual discipline but as a contributor to colonial and imperial policies. Understanding Orientalism involves recognizing its role within the broader context of European imperialism and its impact on the accumulation of territories and people.
Silvestre de Sacy and Ernest Renan: Foundations of Modern Orientalism
Part II examines the contributions of Silvestre de Sacy and Ernest Renan to modern Orientalism. It highlights how their work laid the groundwork for contemporary Western perspectives and studies of the Orient, shaping how Eastern cultures and societies are understood and interpreted in the West.
Silvestre de Sacy
Silvestre de Sacy, born in 1757, became a leading figure in Oriental studies. His work at the College de France and the French Foreign Ministry involved translating key documents and training interpreters.
Sacy’s contributions to Oriental studies include creating systematic texts, pedagogic practices, and links between scholarship and public policy. His teaching methods were direct and aimed at providing explicit, rational knowledge.
Renan’s Expansion of Orientalist Philology
As influenced by Sacy, Ernest Renan focused on making Orientalism a scientific study. He emphasized the importance of philology – the study of languages – in understanding human history.
A scientific approach marked Renan’s work, treating Oriental subjects as objects for European investigation.
The Role of Philology in Modern Thought
Renan and his contemporaries viewed philology as crucial to modern thinking. This field was considered a comparative discipline essential for understanding human history and culture.
As Renan practiced, Philology involved the scientific classification and analysis of languages, especially Oriental languages.
Renan’s Approach to Oriental Languages
Renan treated Oriental languages, specifically Semitic languages, as subjects of scientific study. He viewed these languages as inorganic and arrested in development compared to Indo-European languages.
His work involved creating a structured understanding of these languages through comparative analysis.
The Laboratory of Philology and its Impact
Renan’s approach to philology can be likened to work in a laboratory. He believed that scientific methods could unlock the secrets of languages and cultures.
This approach placed European scholars in a position of authority over Oriental subjects, reinforcing a sense of European dominance.
Orientalism as a Scientific Discipline
Renan’s work solidified Orientalism as a scientific discipline, moving it away from its religious and traditional roots. This shift allowed Orientalism to be seen as a legitimate field of study, with its methods and approaches influenced heavily by the scientific mindset of the time.
Renan’s Legacy in Orientalism
Renan’s legacy in Orientalism is significant. His methods and approach to studying the Orient influenced how future generations would engage with these subjects.
His work represents a pivotal moment in transforming Oriental studies into a discipline shaped by the norms and expectations of European scientific thought.
Pilgrims and Pilgrimages, British and French
This part is about the experiences of British and French pilgrims in the East. It discusses how their journeys and the accounts they wrote about these lands influenced Western views on Eastern cultures, contributing to the shaping of Orientalist perspectives and narratives in Europe.
European Travelers in the Orient
European travelers in the Orient, like Edward William Lane, reshaped the East in their writings. They simplified the complexities of Oriental life, adjusting it to European sensibilities.
This process, known as “Orientalizing,” often removed elements that clashed with European norms, especially around sexuality and social customs.
The Orient as a Release
For many Europeans, the Orient represented an escape from their conventional lives. It was seen as a place of ancient wonders and mysteries, starkly contrasting European realities.
This perception was popularized by writers like Goethe, who portrayed the East as a land of boundless opportunity and unfamiliar allure.
Writers’ Engagement with the Orient
Writers like Chateaubriand and Lamartine traveled to the Orient, each bringing their fantasies and perceptions.
Chateaubriand viewed his journey as a revival of Christian narratives in the Orient, while Lamartine saw his travels as a political and poetic mission.
Their writings often imposed their ideologies onto the Oriental landscape.
Nerval and Flaubert’s Mythologies
Nerval and Flaubert, both deeply influenced by Oriental literature and their travels, used the Orient as a backdrop for exploring personal mythologies.
Nerval’s “Voyage en Orient” blended travel notes with his imaginative literature, while Flaubert’s experiences in the Orient profoundly influenced his subsequent novels.
English Writers’ Practical Approach
In contrast to their French counterparts, English writers often had a more pragmatic view of the Orient, influenced by Britain’s colonial interests in the region.
Like Kinglake’s “Eothen,” their works tended to be less about personal exploration and more about affirming national and imperial identities.
Richard Burton’s Knowledge and Imperialism
Richard Burton exemplified a deep personal knowledge of the Orient gained through extensive travel and study.
However, his work also reflected a European desire to dominate and understand the Orient from a position of imperial power.
Burton’s writings navigated this complex intersection of personal experience and imperial ambition.
Orientalism’s Evolution into a Scholarly Discipline
By the late 19th century, Orientalism had developed into a formal academic discipline with structured methodologies and institutional support.
This transformation from personal observations to a systematic study marked a significant shift in how the Orient was understood and represented in the West.
20th Century Legacy
The 20th century inherited this structured view of Orientalism, where the Orient was no longer just a geographic location but a domain for European scholarly and imperial control. The personal narratives of earlier travelers gave way to more formalized and institutional approaches, aligning Orientalism closely with Western political and academic interests.
Latent and Manifest Orientalism
This part examines two forms of Orientalism. ‘Latent and Manifest Orientalism.’ Latent refers to the underlying, often unconscious, prejudices and stereotypes about the East. Manifest Orientalism involves more visible, explicit expressions and studies of Eastern cultures by Westerners. Both forms shape Western perceptions of the Orient.
Early Modern Orientalism
The focus is on Orientalism’s beginnings in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The author examines how Orientalism developed against a backdrop of European intellectual, cultural, and political history.
Assumptions in Orientalism
Orientalism is not entirely objective; it is influenced by society, culture, and politics. The author questions the belief that scholarship always progresses, suggesting that it is limited by its era and the scholars’ biases.
Orientalism’s Political Nature
Orientalism is seen as a political tool, reflecting Western power over the weaker Orient. It is an interpretation framework conditioned by language and cultural perceptions.
Imbalance of Power
The West’s dominance is evident in the extensive literature about the Orient, contrasting the minimal Oriental literature about the West. It reflects an imbalance and Western aggression towards the East.
Evolution and Impact
Orientalism evolved with Western colonialism, affecting how the Orient is seen and managed. Western scholars, through Orientalism, significantly influence shaping policies in the East.
Orientalism’s Two Forms
- Latent Orientalism
- Manifest Orientalism
Latent Orientalism refers to the underlying, often unconscious beliefs and assumptions about the Orient (the East) that pervade Western thought and culture.
These beliefs are deeply ingrained and form a hidden framework that influences how the Orient is perceived and represented in the West. Critical characteristics of latent Orientalism include:
Unconscious Prejudices: Latent Orientalism embodies deep-seated stereotypes and clichés about Eastern societies, cultures, and people. These are not always overt or explicitly stated but form a backdrop against which the Orient is viewed.
Permanence: Unlike manifest Orientalism, which can change and evolve with new research and perspectives, latent Orientalism is more enduring and resistant to change. It is a part of the Western cultural heritage that persists over time.
Cultural Superiority: It often implicitly assumes Western superiority and Eastern inferiority. It can manifest in views of the Orient as backward, unfamiliar, mysterious, and fundamentally different from the West.
Influence on Scholarship: Latent Orientalism shapes the approach and focus of scholars studying the Orient. Even well-intentioned research is often unconsciously guided by these underlying assumptions.
Impact on Policy and Perception: These ingrained beliefs can influence foreign policy, societal attitudes, and even how the media portrays events and people from the East.
Manifest Orientalism refers to the explicit, visible, and tangible expressions of Western attitudes, policies, and practices towards the Orient.
Unlike the subtle and often subconscious nature of latent Orientalism, manifest Orientalism is directly observable in various forms of cultural, political, and academic engagement with the East. Key aspects include:
Explicit Representations: Manifest Orientalism is evident in how the Orient is described and depicted in Western literature, art, media, and scholarship. These representations often reinforce stereotypes and simplistic generalizations about Eastern cultures and peoples.
Academic Studies: It includes the formal study of the Orient in Western academic institutions. It involves researching, teaching, and publishing on Eastern languages, cultures, history, and societies. While such studies can be insightful, they often carry an inherent bias based on Western perspectives.
Policy and Administration: Manifest Orientalism is seen in how Western powers have historically engaged with Eastern nations, particularly regarding colonialism, political policies, and economic exploitation. It reflects the practical application of Orientalist attitudes in governing and administering Eastern territories.
Cultural Exchanges: It encompasses the more direct interactions between the West and the East, such as travel, exploration, and diplomacy. Western travelers, explorers, and diplomats often approached the Orient with preconceived notions based on Orientalist beliefs.
Influence on Eastern Societies: Manifest Orientalism has tangible impacts on Eastern societies, often leading to changes in their cultural, political, and social structures due to Western influence or domination.
European Influence in the Orient
Britain and France, through Orientalism, shaped the Orient’s destiny. This influence was not only intellectual but also political and geographical, with the Orient being transformed into a colonial space.
Orientalism’s Role in Empires
Orientalism played a crucial role in European imperialism. Experts in Oriental studies advised governments and shaped policies, often reinforcing Western power and control over the East.
Convergence of Orientalism
There was a convergence between academic Orientalism and the practical application of these studies in colonial administration. It led to a deeper Western involvement in the Orient, both intellectually and politically.
The chapter concludes that Orientalism, while presenting itself as an academic and objective study, has profound political implications and has been instrumental in justifying and supporting Western dominance over the Orient.
Style, Expertise, Vision: Orientalism’s Worldliness
This part discusses how Western scholars’ personal style, expertise, and perspectives influence Orientalism. It highlights how these elements, shaped by their cultural and political contexts, affect the representation and interpretation of Eastern societies and cultures.
The White Man’s Burden
“The White Man’s Burden,” a phrase coined by Rudyard Kipling, encapsulates a central idea of Orientalism. It refers to the belief that European and American powers should govern and “civilize” non-Western societies, considered less advanced or “brutal.”
This ideology was often used to justify colonialism and imperialism in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Justification for Colonialism
Kipling’s concept became a rallying cry for Western expansion. It suggested that Western powers had a moral obligation to bring their perceived superior culture, governance, and economic systems to the East.
This burden was framed as a noble endeavor despite often resulting in the exploitation and subjugation of colonized peoples.
At the core of “The White Man’s Burden” is a paternalistic view. Western powers saw themselves as parental figures guiding and educating the East.
This perspective ignored or dismissed Eastern societies’ complexities, histories, and achievements, painting them as childlike and needing Western guidance.
Impact on Eastern Societies
Implementing this ideology had profound and often detrimental effects on Eastern societies. It led to the erosion of local cultures, languages, and traditions.
Colonial education systems and governance models were imposed, often undermining traditional societal structures.
Criticism and Modern Perspective
In modern times, “The White Man’s Burden” is heavily criticized for its racist and imperialist undertones. It is seen as emblematic of an era that devalued and dehumanized non-Western peoples under the guise of civilization and progress.
Contemporary understanding rejects the notion of any culture or race having a ‘burden’ to civilize others, advocating instead for mutual respect and understanding among diverse societies.
Evolution of Modern Anglo-French Orientalism
It explores the development and changes in British and French Orientalism over time. It examines how both countries’ approaches to studying and representing the East evolved, influenced by their historical, political, and cultural experiences with Eastern societies.
The Generalist Approach in Early Orientalism
Before World War II, Orientalists were seen as generalists with specific knowledge, making broad, summational statements about the Orient based on their studies.
Shift in Post-War Orientalist Rationale
After World War I, the focus of Orientalism shifted from understanding and controlling the Orient to a cultural understanding and mutual enrichment between the East and West.
Hurgronje and Gibb
Hurgronje emphasized the disparity between the East and West using Islamic law, while Gibb advocated studying Oriental literature to broaden Western perspectives.
The Impact of European Dominance
This era marked a change in European dominance over the Orient, from passive acceptance to increasing political challenges and a cultural shift towards a broader understanding.
Influential Orientalists: Massignon and Gibb
Massignon combined Western methods with the understanding of Eastern civilizations, influencing future scholars. Gibb represented the academic tradition in British and American Orientalism.
The influence of Massignon and Gibb was profound, shaping future scholarship. Despite advancements, Orientalism remained detached from contemporary realities, maintaining traditional views.
Transition to Specialized Social Sciences
The focus on Orientalism shifted to more specialized American social sciences, bringing significant changes in the field. However, traditional Orientalist beliefs continued to influence the study of the Orient.
The Latest Phase
This part discusses the most recent developments in Orientalism. It focuses on how contemporary views and studies of the East have changed, reflecting new political realities, shifts in power dynamics, and evolving cultural interactions between the West and Eastern societies.
Changes in American View of Arabs and Orientalism
After World War II, especially following the Arab-Israeli wars, Americans’ perception of Arabs shifted significantly. While they were initially seen as unfamiliar, the image of Arabs later became more hostile, often linked to conflict and oil.
This change reflected a broader shift in global power dynamics, with the U.S. replacing Britain and France as the dominant force in world politics.
Modern Orientalism and Its Impact
Modern Orientalism has evolved, blending traditional European views with American social science approaches. This change has led to a more complex portrayal of the Orient, with diverse representations emerging.
However, traditional Orientalist views persist, influencing academic and popular perceptions of the Orient.
Representation of Arabs in American Culture
Arabs are often stereotyped in American culture, with their portrayal fluctuating between simplistic caricatures and menacing figures.
This representation is influenced by current events and political sentiments, often depicting Arabs as either incompetent or threatening and rarely as individualized, complex characters.
Academic and Political Approach to Orientalism
Experts claim regional knowledge in academia and often serve government or business interests. This approach has led to a fragmented understanding of the Orient.
It focuses on specific areas rather than a holistic view. Despite advancements, Orientalist beliefs continue to shape studies of the Orient.
Orientalism’s Influence on Scholarship and Policy
Orientalism significantly impacts scholarship and policy, often reinforcing traditional stereotypes and biases.
This influence is evident in the portrayal of Arabs and Muslims in academic studies, media, and government policies, where they are often viewed through a lens of cultural and religious differences.
The evolution of Orientalism since World War II reflects broader changes in global politics and culture. Despite a greater understanding of the Orient, traditional Orientalist views continue to influence how Arabs and the Orient are perceived in American culture, academia, and politics.