Q. Write a note on the Anglo Norman period (1066-1200).
Before the Norman Conquest, many different kingdoms in England followed Anglo-Saxon traditions. During this time, things kept changing. Different groups allied with or fought against each other.
Local leaders had much power, and the Vikings kept invading. When the Vikings took over parts of the country, they made people follow Danish law.
By the middle of the 11th century, after many battles and struggles, England was mainly brought together under King Edward the Confessor.
However, the country seemed more united, but problems were brewing, especially since Edward did not have a prominent person to take over as king after him.
When Edward the Confessor died in January 1066, a big problem started over who should be the next king. Several strong people wanted to rule:
Harold Godwinson: English nobles picked Harold, Edward’s brother-in-law, to be king. He was immediately crowned. He was strong and good at fighting, and the local leaders thought he would keep England in English hands.
William of Normandy: In France, William, Duke of Normandy, thought he should be king because Edward had promised him the crown, and Harold had said he would help him. When Harold became king, William was furious.
Other People: Some other people also wanted to be king, like Harald Hardrada from Norway, who thought a deal made before gave him a right to the throne. Edgar the Ætheling, a young English nobleman, was another person who wanted to be king but did not have the support to make it happen.
In 1066, several important battles happened that changed England’s future:
Battle of Fulford (September 20, 1066)
Harald Hardrada, helped by Harold’s brother Tostig, beat the English in the north. It looked like the Vikings might take over again, but they did not.
Battle of Stamford Bridge (September 25, 1066)
King Harold quickly went north and fought Hardrada’s army at Stamford Bridge. The English won, and Hardrada and Tostig were killed. The Vikings were no longer a threat.
Battle of Hastings (October 14, 1066)
William of Normandy invaded the south while Harold was busy up north. They fought near Hastings, and it went on all day. In the end, Harold was killed, and William won.
William was made king on Christmas Day, 1066. It was the start of the Normans ruling England and the beginning of a new time in English history.
William’s time as king changed much about England, like bringing in new ideas and mixing Norman and English ways. It changed English culture for good.
Aftermath of the Conquest
It was a momentous occasion when William was crowned on Christmas Day in 1066. However, the lasting effects of the Norman Conquest reverberated for many years after the coronation event.
1- Suppression of Rebellion
Initial Resistance: As with any takeover, the Normans faced considerable opposition from those once in power, particularly in the north of England.
The “Harrying of the North”: William was very tough in dealing with his enemies. He became famous for the “Harrying of the North,” where he burned whole villages and killed people there.
This act is remembered as a very dark time and showed how strongly the Normans controlled the area.
2- Establishment of Feudalism
New System Introduction: William introduced the feudal system, a structure where the king owned all land to manage his new kingdom.
Hierarchy of Power: He would then grant sizable estates to his trusted lords in exchange for military services. These lords had followers, known as vassals, who promised to be loyal and serve them. This shift brought a new social order and a fresh, Norman-dominated aristocratic class.
3- Redistribution of Land
Confiscation: Much of the land previously owned by the Anglo-Saxon elite was taken away.
Norman Ownership: This confiscated land was then generously awarded to Norman lords and nobles. This move was strategic. It ensured the Normans’ dominance and their influence over English society.
4- Architectural Influence
Symbolic Structures: The Normans, enthusiastic builders, began constructing numerous structures like castles and cathedrals. It showed the Romanesque architectural style.
Statement of Authority: These grand towers were more than mere buildings. They symbolized Norman power, authority, and connection to broader European traditions and aesthetics.
5- Linguistic Impact
Norman-French: The new ruling elite primarily spoke a variant of Old French. French became the prominent language in courts and governance as they took over administrative and legal roles.
English Evolution: This blend of languages meant that many French words were adopted into the local lexicon. It formed the basis for Middle English and diversifying the language.
6- Legal Reforms
Uniform Law: William and his heirs significantly changed England’s legal landscape. Introductions of the common law ensured uniformity in the legal procedures and judgments throughout the kingdom.
7- The Domesday Book (1086)
Comprehensive Survey: William ordered a detailed survey to grip taxation better and fully understand his realm’s resources.
A Historical Masterpiece: Today, the Domesday Book is a monumental record. It offered insights into England’s society, economics, and demographics at the close of the 11th century.
Dominant Genres Emerged During the Anglo-Norman Era
The romance genre was one of the most significant literary contributions of the Anglo-Norman period. It often featured tales of chivalry, love, and adventure.
Characteristics of Romance
Chivalry: Knights are often central characters, bound by a code of honor, courage, and gentlemanly conduct.
Courtly Love: A highly idealized form of love, often extramarital, that follows specific rules and rituals. This often includes devotion to a noble lady and performing deeds in her honor.
Adventure and Quests: The protagonist often undertakes a journey or mission, facing various challenges, trials, and temptations. The quests usually have a moral or spiritual significance.
Supernatural Elements: Many romances include elements of magic, myth, or the fantastical. This could include magical objects, creatures, and interventions by divine beings.
Heroic Characters: Characters are often larger-than-life, embodying idealized virtues like bravery, loyalty, and integrity.
Structured Poetry or Prose: Romances were often composed in verse and followed specific poetic forms, such as rhymed couplets.
Moral Lessons: These stories often contain underlying moral or ethical lessons, reflecting the social values of the time.
Setting: Often set in a distant or idealized past, sometimes in fantastical realms. Locations could be real or imaginary, but they often represent a form of escapism.
Emotional Intensity: Romances often depict intense emotions, especially love, but also fear, jealousy, and despair, often exaggerated to heighten the drama.
Conflict and Resolution: Most romances involve a conflict or struggle, often between good and evil, that is eventually resolved. It favored the protagonists or the virtues they represented.
‘Tristan and Isolde’ was one of the famous romances of the Anglo-Norman period.
The chronicling of historical events became a prominent genre in the Anglo-Norman period. These chronicles provided detailed accounts of historical events, often written by monks or other religious figures.
One of the most renowned chroniclers of this time was Geoffrey of Monmouth, who wrote “Historia Regum Britanniae.”
3- Religious Writing
Hymns, sermons, saints’ lives, and biblical translations were written to guide the religious practices of the time. Anselm of Canterbury, a theologian, and philosopher of the period, made significant contributions to Christian thought and wrote prayers and meditations.
4- Lyric Poetry
Lyric poetry, often composed in Old French, was a refined expression during the Anglo-Norman period. These poems were often sung and accompanied by musical instruments, touching themes of love, nature, and morality.
Marie de France was a notable writer of this period, known for her “Lais” – short narrative poems that blend romance and fantasy.
5- Didactic Literature
Teaching through literature was common, and many works were created to instruct both in religious and secular matters. These texts could range from manuals on hunting and courtesy to more spiritual guides on Christian living.
6- Legal Texts
The Norman Conquest changed the English legal system, producing various legal texts. Treatises, charters, and writs were produced to codify the new legal norms.
The Domesday Book, commissioned by William the Conqueror, was a comprehensive survey of landholdings in England. It remains an invaluable document for historians studying the period.
English language During the Anglo-Norman
1- Linguistic Stratification
The Normans, with their dialect of Old French, became the ruling class. A clear linguistic stratification emerged:
French: Used by the nobility and in legal and official documents, French became the language of high culture. The court, administration, and education were conducted in French, profoundly influencing England’s ruling classes.
Latin: Despite the prominence of French, Latin continued to be used by the Church and in scholarly works. Monasteries, universities, and religious institutions retained Latin, ensuring its survival and influence during this period.
Old English: Spoken by the common people, Old English was also retained in some local administrative contexts. However, it was largely sidelined by the elite.
2- Lexical Influence
The Anglo Norman introduced a vast amount of French vocabulary. This lexical enrichment touched various fields:
Law and Governance: Terms like “court,” “judge,” “government,” and “council” were borrowed from the French.
Culture and Art: The Normans strongly believed in chivalry and enjoyed refined culture. Because of this, they introduced words related to things like politeness, love stories, and art. Examples of these words include “dance,” “music,” “literature,” and “fashion.”
Religion and Education: Continental Europe and Norman French influenced the Church and intellectual groups. This led to the introduction of words such as “clergy,” “sermon,” “university,” and “school.”
3- Grammatical Changes
The grammar of English also began to transform during the Anglo-Norman period:
Loss of Inflections: Old English had a highly inflected structure, with different endings for nouns, adjectives, and verbs to denote grammatical functions. These inflections eroded during the Norman rule, which simplified the language’s structure.
Pronouns and Prepositions: Certain pronouns and prepositions show the influence of French. These subtle changes contributed to the overall transformation of English grammar during this time.
Although French was the dominant literary language for the elite, English continued to be used and evolved in literary contexts. Literary works started to reflect the multicultural aspects of society:
Bilingual Texts: Some texts were written in both English and French, reflecting the bilingual nature of the educated classes. This fusion enriched English literature and provided unique insights into the period’s linguistic landscape.
Emergence of Middle English Literature: By the end of the Anglo-Norman period, authors like Geoffrey Chaucer wrote in Middle English. His works, significantly shaped by Norman French, paved the way for future literary achievements in English.
Language Variation and Dialects
The Anglo-Norman period saw a proliferation of English dialects. Without a central royal court using English, regional variations became more pronounced:
Differentiation between Dialects: The Northern, Midlands, Southern, and Kentish dialects became more distinct, reflecting both older Anglo-Saxon differences and varying degrees of Norman influence.
By the end of the Anglo-Norman period, the language had substantially changed. It moved away from Old English and set the stage for Middle English:
With the decline of Norman rule and the rise of English-born rulers, English regained prestige. Norman’s influence fundamentally altered the language.